Put into bat, Bangladesh lost a couple of early wickets before middle-order batsman Towhid Hridoy took charge at the Bert Sutcliffe Oval. Hridoy scored 122 as Bangladesh compiled a score of 264 for eight in 50 overs.
Canada fast bowler Faisal Jamkhandi took five wickets at the expense of 48 runs in eight overs.
Canada was bowled out for 198 in 49.3 overs with Khan’s 63 coming off 108 balls. Opener Pranav Sharma added 34 off 58 balls.
Bangladesh, third in 2016, opened the tournament with an 87-run win over Namibia.
Canada is in Group C along with Bangladesh, England and Namibia at the 16-country tournament, held every two years. The Canadians, who finished 15th in 2016, play Namibia on Thursday and England on Saturday.
The top two sides from each of the four groups will advance to the Super League while the remaining eight teams play in the Plate Championship.
Canada qualified for the World Cup by winning three of four matches against the U.S. and Bermuda in the America Qualifiers.
The 12th edition of the ICC U19 Cricket World Cup is open to players born on or after Sept. 1, 1998.